Over the past few decades, global energy consumption has been on a steady increase due to the rising population and expanding economic activities. Most of the energy consumed is currently sourced from fossil fuels followed by natural gas, coal, electricity, and renewable energies respectively (OECD/IEA, 2015). Fossil fuels accounted for 82 percent of global primary energy in 2015 but, this number is targeted to decline due to large growth in the natural gas and renewable energy sectors, especially wind and solar (OECD/IEA, 2015).
Data from international Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) has shown an increase in global renewable capacity by 10.3% in 2020 when 261 GW of new projects were commissioned (IRENA, 2020), of which Asia accounts for (167.6 GW, corresponding to a 15% growth), followed by Europe (+34.3 GW, +6%), North America (+32.1 GW, +8%), South America (+9.4 GW, +4%), Oceania (+6.9 GW, +19%), Eurasia (+6.2 GW, +6%), the Middle East (+1.2 GW, +5%), Africa (+2.6 GW, +5%) and Central America and the Caribbean (+0.3 GW, +2%).
The energy sector in Zanzibar consists of electricity, fossil fuels, biomass such as charcoal, firewood, and renewable energy which is currently dominated by solar. The existing electrical energy resources are from TANESCO while fossil fuels are imported from abroad. The electrical system is regulated by the RGoZ through the state-owned company ZECO which provides physical infrastructure, for the transmission and distribution of electricity.
The goals of the energy sector set in Zanzibar’s as articulated in Development Vision 2050 aims at attaining greater power system independence and reliability through the diversification of energy resources especially renewable energy. The Zanzibar Energy Policy (2009) is a guiding instrument for the common actions by Government, private sector, civil society organizations, and the general public.
The main objective of the Energy Policy is to meet the energy needs of the Zanzibar population for social and economic development in an environmentally sustainable manner. The major aspiration includes sustainable and diversified energy resources through exploration and adaptation of domestically generated energy including RE and non-RE sources.
This has been geared by the fact that the economic pattern is expected to be derived by energy-intensive activities such as service and industries. As per vision 2050 the contribution of the service sector and industrial sector expected to lead the economy of Zanzibar, it is anticipated that by 2030 the GDP share of the industry will be 25% from the 18% of 2019 as well as service of the industry will be 50%.
Reliable electricity supplies are the catalysts for commercial and industrial growth. The demand for electricity has been increased due to the increase of economic activities as well as population growth. In addition, the Vision 2050 has laid a framework for the major economic transformation to a circular economy including blue and green economy. Hence, there is a need for the Zanzibar to come up with other resources that could generate electricity and improve energy security. Government through various projects has made effort to understand the potential of solar and wind and some results provided promising results.
This conference intends to explore further resources so as to understand the potential, economic, and technical viability that could inform decision-making. It will bring experts in the field of RE from academia, industries and business communities to discuss and finally, make recommendations on potential sources.
Conference Main Objective
To explore the potential of various energy resources that could be used to generate electricity in Zanzibar.
o To examine the social, economic, and environmental aspects of various sources of Renewable Energy(RE)
o To examine legal frameworks of various sources of RE
o To determine the technical aspects of various sources of RE
o To understand dynamics of Interconnections of Grid with energy from Various RE sources or distributed generation.
o To establish a network of energy specialists